Welcome into the Mirror World: where conspiracy is reality, fiction is fact, left is right, and you may not even recognize yourself. Naomi’s ninth book is her most personal.


The following are slightly expanded endnotes with links added where possible. However, in some instances and for various reasons, posts have been taken down or made private. In some such cases, links could not be provided. Where possible, we have provided links to the same content on a different platform.

Introduction: Off-Brand Me

4 More than six hundred people died: Michael Egilson, “Extreme Heat and Human Mortality: A Review of Heat-Related Deaths in B.C. in Summer 2021,” Report to the Chief Coroner of British Columbia, June 7, 2022, 4; Stefan Labb.,“Heat Dome Primed B.C. Coastlines to Resemble Subtropical East Asia, Says Researcher,” North Shore News, April 29, 2022.


6 “that species of the frightening”: Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny,” in The Uncanny, trans. David McLintock (London: Penguin, 2003), 124. Freud’s essay was originally published in 1919.


6 “may identify himself with another”: Freud, “The Uncanny,” 142.


9 “a mode of being”: Emilio Uranga’s Analysis of Mexican Being: A Translation and Critical Introduction, trans. Carlos Alberto S.nchez (1952; repr. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021), 180.


10 “It’s too ridiculous”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock: A Confession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 55.


13 “Chaos is merely order”: José Saramago, The Double, trans. Margaret Jull Costa (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt Books, 2004), vii.

Part One: Double Life

15 “I have found a way”: Jules Gleeson, “Judith Butler: ‘We Need to Rethink the Category of Woman,’The Guardian, September 7, 2021.

1. Occupied

18 You could look it up: Naomi Klein, “Occupy Wall Street: The Most Important Thing in the World Now,” The Nation, October 6, 2011.


19 “I found out what it was”: Naomi Wolf, “The Shocking Truth About the Crackdown on Occupy,” The Guardian, November 25, 2011.


19 “they had a first amendment right”: Naomi Wolf, “Naomi Wolf: How I Was Arrested at Occupy Wall Street,” The Guardian, October 19, 2011.


20 “When you connect the dots”: Wolf, “The Shocking Truth About the Crackdown on Occupy.”


20 “Sadly, Americans this week”: Wolf, “The Shocking Truth About the Crackdown on Occupy.”


21 “Her partner, the film producer Avram Ludwig”: Matt Wells, “Occupy Wall St: Naomi Wolf Condemns ‘Stalinist’ Erosion of Protest Rights,” The Guardian, October 19, 2011.


21 “not who he purports to be”: Joe Coscarelli, “Naomi Wolf Thinks Edward Snowden and His Sexy Girlfriend Might Be Government Plants,” New York Magazine, June 14, 2013; Naomi Wolf, “My Creeping Concern That the NSA Leaker Is Not Who He Purports to Be . . . ,” Facebook Notes, posted June 15, 2013, updated March 14, 2021.


21 “mass lockdowns”: Naomi Wolf, Facebook post, September 30, 2014.


21 possibly not real murders: Max Fisher, “The Insane Conspiracy Theories of3 Naomi Wolf,” Vox, October 5, 2014.


21 “intelligence service”: Naomi Wolf, “A Tale of Two Rape Charges,” The Great Debate (blog), Reuters, May 23, 2011.


21 potentially fraudulent: “Naomi Wolf Compiles Ballot Paper Complaints,” The (Glasgow) Herald, September 27, 2014.


21 not the demands: “Progressive Feminist Naomi Wolf Rips the Green New Deal as ‘Fascism’—‘I WANT a Green New Deal’ but ‘This One Is a Straight Up Power Grab,’ ” Climate Depot, February 21, 2021.


22 “aluminum on a global level”: Tim Skellett @Gurdur, tweet, March 24, 2018, Twitter.


22 “It was amazing to go to Belfast”: Naomi Wolf @naomirwolf, tweet, July 5, 2019, 1:13 a.m., in Séamas O’Reilly @shockproofbeats, tweet, April 5, 2020, 4:27 a.m., Twitter.


22 “What little girls learn”: Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women (1990; repr. New York: Perennial, 2002), 157–158.


22 There were major statistical errors: Casper Schoemaker, “A Critical Appraisal of the Anorexia Statistics in the Beauty Myth: Introducing Wolf’s Overdo and Lie Factor (WOLF),” Eating Disorders 12, no. 2 (2004): 97–102.

  • Specifically, Schoemaker writes, “When compared to the relevant epidemiological reviews, however, 18 of the 23 statistics are inaccurate and overdone. On average, a statistic on anorexia by Naomi Wolf should be divided by eight to get close to the real figure.”


22 “the most important feminist publication”: Alice Steinbach, “WOLF VS. ‘BEAUTY MYTH’ Feminist Sees Conspiracy in Stress on Appearance,” Baltimore Sun, June 23, 1991.


23 “The ruling elite”: Wolf, The Beauty Myth, 25.


23 “will to power”: Naomi Wolf, Fire with Fire: The New Female Power and How to Use It (London: Chatto & Windus, 1993), xviii.


24 “Seventeen magazine level of thinker”: Camille Paglia, “Hillary, Naomi, Susan and Rush. Sheesh!,” Salon, November 17, 1999.


25 from a “beta male” to an “alpha male”: Michael Duffy and Karen Tumulty, “Campaign 2000: Gore’s Secret Guru,” Time, November 8, 1999.


25 “Ms. Wolf is the moral equivalent”: Maureen Dowd, “Liberties; The Alpha-Beta Macarena,” New York Times, November 3, 1999.


25 “a year of chaos”: Naomi Wolf, The Treehouse: Eccentric Wisdom from My Father on How to Live, Love, and See (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005), 13.


25 “My father had raised me”: Wolf, The Treehouse, 25.


25 “heart” mattered “over facts, numbers, and laws”: Wolf, The Treehouse, 27.


25 given the creative way: Naomi Wolf, “Dr. Naomi Wolf Confronts Yale for Crimes Against Students,” DailyClout (video), December 5, 2022.

  • See the above video for an example of this creativity (though there are many others). Especially, see 3:33-6:20.


26 “Destroy the box”: Wolf, The Treehouse, 9.


26 “Before you can even think about”: Wolf, The Treehouse, 72.


26 “Wolf is a cloud truther”: Eve Andrews, “The Real Fear Behind Climate Conspiracy Theories,” Grist, April 6, 2018.


27 “If the Naomi be Klein”: See, for example @markpopham, tweet, October 23, 2019, 6:18 a.m., Twitter. The origins of this poem are unclear and there are several versions of it, so it is not necessarily attributable to the above handle.


28 “Someone, out in this world”: Grace Ebert, “I’m Not a Look-Alike: Hundreds of Unrelated Doppelgängers Sit for François Brunelle’s Uncanny Portraits,” Colossal, February 9, 2022.


28 “detestable coincidence”: Edgar Allan Poe, “William Wilson,” Burton Gentleman’s Magazine & American Monthly Review 5, no. 4 (October 1839): 208.


28 “above a very low whisper” . . . “arch-enemy and evil genius”: Poe, “William Wilson,” 207, 212.

2. Enter Covid, the Threat Multiplier

31 “vaccinated people’s urine/feces”: Naomi Wolf @naomirwolf, tweet, June 4, 2021, Twitter.


32 “conspiracy without the theory”: Russell Muirhead and Nancy L. Rosenblum, A Lot of People Are Saying: The New Conspiracism and the Assault on Democracy (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2019), 19.


32 “a genocide”: Naomi Wolf, “Dear Friends, Sorry to Announce a Genocide,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, May 29, 2022.


32 nearly doubling her following: Before Covid, Wolf had around 70,000 followers; by May 2021, around the time she was deplatformed, she had 138,000. Naomi Wolf @naomirwolf, web capture of Twitter account, May 15, 2021.

  • When Twitter allowed her back, the numbers surged again. As of August 3, 2023 she had around 315,000 followers (and counting).


32 “local leaders are dying too”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, May 16, 2022.


33 “demonic”: Steve Bannon, host, “Chris Wray Lies on 60 Minutes,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,808, April 25, 2022, at 33:59–34:06, posted on Apple Podcasts.

  • A video of episode is available on Rumble as of July 2023. See 32:28-32:35


33 “transnational group of bad actors”: Naomi Wolf, “Facing the Beast,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, July 17, 2022.3


33 “hundreds of women”: Geoff Brumfiel, “The Life Cycle of a Covid-19 Vaccine Lie,” National Public Radio, July 20, 2021.

  • See also Wolf’s original tweet from April 18, 2021, here.


34 “a very highly followed influencer”: Brumfiel, “The Life Cycle of a Covid-19 Vaccine Lie.”


34 “bleeding between [her] period”: Morgan Yew @weynagrom, tweet, May 23, 2021, Twitter, video 9 of 25, at 0:24.

  • Since the Doppelganger research phase, access to these posts has been restricted.


34 “They are sterilizing an entire generation”: Yew, tweet, May 23, 2021.


34 “one foot in the grave”: Yew, tweet, May 23, 2021.


35 “autocratic tyrants”: “Naomi Wolf Sounds Alarm at Growing Power of ‘Autocratic Tyrants,’” Tucker Carlson Tonight, Fox News, February 22, 2021.


35 “This is your periodic reminder”: Naomi Klein @NaomiAKlein, tweet, February 23, 2021, Twitter.


35 “Still here, sadly”: Naomi Klein @NaomiAKlein, tweet, June 5, 2021, Twitter.


36 “a much-hyped medical crisis”: Naomi Wolf, 2021 introduction to The End of America: Letter of Warning to a Young Patriot (White River Junction, Vt.: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2021), xv.


36 the “guise” of a medical emergency: “Naomi Wolf Sounds Alarm at Growing Power of ‘Autocratic Tyrants.’”


36 “I have relegated”: Richard Gillard @RickyBaby321, Gettr post, February 26, 2022.


36 “We can’t have two of you”: Dual, directed by Michael Ragen (RLJE Films, 2022).


37 “An uncanny effect”: Sigmund Freud, The Uncanny, trans. David McLintock

(London: Penguin, 2003), 150.


38 “I’m not myself, you see”: Lewis Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865; repr. Vancouver: Engage Classic, 2020), 35.


38 “Those fears distract people”: Benedict Carey, “A Theory About Conspiracy Theories,” New York Times, September 28, 2020.


40 “Oh Jesus”: Tahar @laseptiemewilay, tweet, March 30, 2021, 7:12 p.m., Twitter.


41 “our friends, professional colleagues”: Richard Seymour, The Twittering Machine (London: Indigo Press, 2019), chapter 1, part III.


41 “When a human being becomes”: Zadie Smith, “Generation Why?,” New York Review, November 25, 2010.


45 “Don’t call me Naomi”: Ruth 1:20 (New International Version).


45 “Where you go, I will go”: Ruth 1:16 (New International Version).

3. My Failed Brand, or Call Me by Her Name

46 “Naomi Klein should sue”: Dan Hon @hondanhon, tweet, May 8, 2021 Twitter.


46 “Stretching Capacity Too Thin”: “Brand Dilution: Definition, Causes and Examples,” MediaValet, March 2, 2021.


47 “likely to cause confusion and dilution”: “‘Satan Shoes’ to Be Recalled as Nike Agrees to Settle Lawsuit,” BBC News, April 9, 2021.


48 “Regardless of age”: Tom Peters, “The Brand Called You,” Fast Company, August 31, 1997.


48 the magazine even published a mea culpa: David Lidsky, “Me Inc.: The Rethink,” Fast Company, March 1, 2005.


48 “a full flight of TV and print ads”: Peters, “The Brand Called You.”


50 “historically anachronistic”: Stuart Hall, The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left (London: Verso, 1988), 276.


50 “caught in a structure”: Wendy Brown, “Resisting Left Melancholy,” boundary 2 26, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 26.


54 “The (Safe for Work) Self”: Alice Marwick, Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity, and Branding in the Social Media Age (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2013), 163.


55 “a wish defense”: Otto Rank, The Double: A Psychoanalytic Study (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1971), 86.


55–56 “The double was originally an insurance”: Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny,” in The Uncanny, trans. David McLintock (London: Penguin, 2003), 142. Freud’s essay was originally published in 1919.


56 “becomes the uncanny harbinger of death”: Freud, “The Uncanny,” 142.


57 “There is a fake ‘Naomirwolf’ on Telegram”: Naomi Wolf, “Pixels, Bots and Human Cruelty,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, January 13, 2023.


59 “Now who’s more real”: American Dharma, directed by Errol Morris (Utopia, 2018).


59 “People take on these digital selves”: American Dharma.


59 “I want Dave in Accounting to be Ajax”: Jennifer Senior, “American Rasputin,” The Atlantic, June 6, 2022.


59 “Lee Seong-yoon”: Timothy W. Martin and Dasl Yoon, “These Campaigns Hope ‘Deepfake’ Candidates Help Get Out the Vote,” Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2022.


60 “a bit creepy”: Martin and Yoon, “These Campaigns Hope ‘Deepfake’ Candidates Help Get Out the Vote.”


60 “These digital doppelgangers”: Mark Sutherland, “ABBA’s ‘Voyage’ CGI Extravaganza Is Everything It’s Cracked Up to Be, and More: ‘Concert’ Review,” Variety, May 27, 2022.


60 “to take the sting out”: Anjana Ahuja, “‘Grief Tech’ Avatars Aim to Take the Sting Out of Death,” Financial Times, December 20, 2022.


61 landmark 2015 book: Simone Browne, Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2015).


61 “This is a difficult archive to write about”: Browne, Dark Matters, 91–92.


61 “a biometric technology”: Browne, Dark Matters, 91.


61 “Branding in the transatlantic slave trade”: Browne, Dark Matters, 91.


61 “an object among other objects”: Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Richard Philcox (New York: Grove Press, 2008), 89.


61 “relate to our self in the third person”: Nancy Colier, “The Branding of the Self,” Psychology Today, August 15, 2012.


62 “A foolish consistency”: Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Self-Reliance,” in Ralph Waldo Emerson: Essays and Journals, ed. Lewis Mumford (New York: Doubleday, 1968), 95.


63 “is a machine”: Lilly Singh, “I’ll See You Soon . . . ,” YouTube, November 12, 2018, at 2:43.


64 “Come for the nectar of approval”: Richard Seymour, The Twittering Machine (London: Indigo Press, 2019), chapter 2, part IX.


64 “several dozen executions”: Alison Flood, “Naomi Wolf Accused of Confusing Child Abuse with Gay Persecution in Outrages,” The Guardian, February 8, 2021.


65 University courses, seeking to instill: Matthew Sweet, “Blind to Bestiality and Paedophilia: Why Naomi Wolf’s Latest Book Is Its Own Outrage,” The Telegraph, February 5, 2021.


65 “off the chessboard”: Ankita Mukhopadhyay, “Naomi Wolf Talks Homophobia, Feminism and ‘Outrages,’” Fair Observer, January 8, 2020.


65 “dialogue between me and myself”: Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951; repr. Cleveland, Ohio: Meridian Books, 1962), 476.


66 “making present to my mind”: Hannah Arendt, “Truth and Politics,” in The Portable Hannah Arendt, ed. Peter Baehr (New York: Penguin, 2000), 556.

4. Meeting Myself in the Woods

68 It depicts a couple: There have been multiple versions of How They Met Themselves: a drawing dated 1851 (which purportedly was lost or destroyed), a pen-and-ink re-creation of the 1851 design dated 1860, and a watercolor replica of the 1860 drawing dated 1864. Here I’m referencing the 1864 watercolor version. See Ford Madox Hueffer, Rossetti: A Critical Essay on His Art (London: Duckworth, 1902).


69 “People with healthy self-esteem”: bell hooks, Rock My Soul: Black People and Self-Esteem

(New York: Atria Books, 2003), 92.


69 “I’m walking around”: George Yancy and bell hooks, “bell hooks: Buddhism, the Beats and Loving Blackness”, New York Times, December 10, 2015.


69 “substance of books”: Heather Williams, “bell hooks Speaks Up” The Sandspur (Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla.), March 26, 2013, 1.


69 “white supremacist capitalist patriarchy”: bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston: South End Press, 1984), 51.


69 “avoid using the phrase”: bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center (Boston: South End Press, 1984), 29.


70 “what happens if we don’t take care of ourselves”: “bell hooks & john a. powell: Belonging Through Connection,” interview at the Othering & Belonging Conference, April 2015, YouTube, at 6:00–6:40.


71 “too ridiculous”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock: A Confession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 55.


71 “the state penetrating their body against their will”: Jeffrey Tucker, “The Pathogenic Excuse for Attacking Liberty: An Interview with Naomi Wolf,” Brownstone Institute (video/podcast), May 9, 2022, at 10:31–11:21.


71 Charlie Chaplin’s daring satire: The Great Dictator, directed by Charles Chaplin (United Artists, 1940).

5. They Know About Cell Phones

75 children had lost the reflex to smile: Matthew Gertz, “Fox Keeps Hosting Pandemic Conspiracy Theorist Naomi Wolf,” Media Matters for America, April 20, 2021.


75 “vaccines w nanopatticles”: Matthew Gertz @MattGertz, tweet, February 26, 2021, Twitter.


75 quarantining the feces: David Connett, “Naomi Wolf Banned from Twitter for Spreading Vaccine Myth,” The Guardian, June 5, 2021.


76 “Whatever Happened to Naomi Wolf?” articles: Liza Featherstone, “The Madness of Naomi Wolf,” New Republic, June 10, 2021; Ian Burrell, “Naomi Wolf’s Slide from Feminist, Democratic Party Icon to the ‘Conspiracist Whirlpool,’” Business Insider, June 5, 2021; Rebecca Onion, “A Modern Feminist Classic Changed My Life. Was It Actually Garbage?,” Slate, March 30, 2021.


76 “Great Reset” campaign: “CommonPass—Travelling the World in the Covid Era,” World Economic Forum, video, August 24, 2020. 76 approaching a “cliff”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” DailyClout channel on YouTube, March 30, 2021, at 15:30.


76 Great Replacement theory: Brian Stelter, “ADL Calls on Fox News to Fire Tucker Carlson Over Racist Comments About ‘Replacement’ Theory,” CNN, April 9, 2021.


77 extreme rhetoric: “Naomi Wolf on the New American Coup,” Big Think channel on YouTube, April 23, 2012; Naomi Wolf, “Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps,” The Guardian, April 24, 2007.


77 “a tyrannical totalitarian platform”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 15:22.


77 “most serious warning”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 0:53; Paul Vallely, host, “The Stand Up America US Show,” Don Smith Show (podcast), episode 35, May 16, 2022, at 40:01, posted on Rumble.


77 “enslaves a billion people”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 4:23.


77 allow a “tyrannical” state: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 1:58, 2:56, and 15:21.


78 “If you’re talking about staging a protest”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 7:57.


78 “two-tiered society”: Tim Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport Could Lead to the End of Human Liberty in the West,” RealClearPolitics, March 29, 2021, at 2:45; “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 7:03.


78 “a dissident”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 6:55.


78 “bioweapon”: “His Glory Presents: Take FiVe w/ Dr. Naomi Wolf,” His Glory, July 28, 2022, at 28:54.

  • In context, Wolf states: “It’s now thoroughly in the hands of our existential adversaries. Who have said clearly that they want our land, they want our water, they want our food supply, they don’t want our population. So that’s why I have concluded that this is a bioweapon, that the vaccine as well as the virus are bioweapons.” (28:39-28:58)


78 “It’s not about the vaccine”: Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 2:06.


78 “machine reading assesses”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 5:37–5:58.


78 tracking your search histories: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 8:27.


78 “has the power to turn off your life”: Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 3:05.


79 “IBM has a horrible history”: Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 3:12.


79 “a tweak of the back end”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 5:26.


79 “geolocate you”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 8:23.


79 “the technology itself”: Alexis Hancock, email to author, August 26, 2022.


79 a couple of instances: Kenith Png, “Police Would Not Agree to Stop Accessing COVID SafeWA App Data, Premier Mark McGowan Says,” ABC News, June 15, 2021.


80 “We cannot rely on pharmaceutical technology alone”: Beatrice Adler-Bolton and Death Panel, “Mask Off,” New Inquiry, April 28, 2022.


81 entire world could have been vaccinated: William Horobin, “It Would Cost $50 Billion to Vaccinate the World, OECD Says,” Bloomberg, December 1, 2021.


81 $37 billion from the Covid vaccine in 2021: Julia Kollewe, “Pfizer Accused of Pandemic Profiteering as Profits Double,” The Guardian, February 8, 2022.


81 just 7.5 percent of Africans: Maggie Fick and Edward McAllister, “COVID Shots Are Finally Arriving, but Africa Can’t Get Them All into Arms,” Reuters, December 6, 2021.


82 “a failure of catastrophic proportions”: “COVID-19: Pfizer Reports Massive Revenues Whilst Failing to Vaccinate Billions,” Amnesty International, November 2, 2021.


82 “It’s not going to work”: Stephanie Nebehay and Josephine Mason, “WHO Warns Against Vaccine Hoarding as Poorer Countries Go Without,” Reuters, December 9, 2021.


82 “the viral underclass”: Steven W. Thrasher, The Viral Underclass: The Human Toll When Inequality and Disease Collide (New York: Celadon Books, 2022).


83 IBM’s collaboration: Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 3:12.


83 “Speaking as a tech CEO”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 5:06; Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 2:01.


83 the site averaged: Domain overview for DailyClout, January 2017–April 2021, Semrush, accessed July 2022.


83 “The founders did not create liberty for America”: Naomi Wolf, “Fake Patriotism,” Huffington Post, November 2, 2008.


84 referenced “the CCP”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”


84 “This is literally the end of human liberty”: Hains, “Naomi Wolf: Mandatory Vaccine Passport,” at 1:47.


84 “there won’t be capitalism”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 13:35.


84 “CCP-type conditioning”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 12:57.


84 “weakening the West”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” at 10:22.


84 “un-American”: “Robert Kennedy Jr Slams the Corrupt System of Big Pharma, Dr Fauci and  he F.D.A.—Video,” DailyClout, May 26, 2022, at 9:36.


84 “model legislation”: Steve Bannon, host, “The Dirty Dozen: 12 Most Dangerous People in America,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,120, July 24, 2021, at 18:32.

  • A video of this episode is available on Rumble as of July 2023. See 17:00-17:15.


84 urged me to “study” it: Correspondence with author, April 3, 2021.


85 “warrior” and her “courage”: Multiple commenters, “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”


85 “the mark of the beast”: Multiple commenters, “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”


85 “the vaccine passport is NOT”: Matthew Giffin, comment, “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”


85 “It is obvious to me”: Matthew Giffin, comment, “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”


85 “Go to China and stay”: @Scipio, comment, “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever.’”

  • Comment was subsequently deleted.


85 In the Maine House of Representatives: Representative Shelley Rudnicki, Facebook post (image), May 10, 2021; Associated Press, “Republican Barred from Inviting Guests into State House,” Associated Press News, May 11, 2021.


85 one of the leading states . . . vaccine passports were akin: Craig Mauger, “Michigan Leads the Nation in New COVID Cases, According to CDC Data,” Detroit News, November 16, 2021; Bruce Walker, “Michigan House Oversight Committee Considers Legislation to Ban Vaccine Passports,” Center Square, May 6, 2021; Dave Boucher, “Michigan Lawmakers Invite COVID-19 Conspiracy Theorist to Testify on Bill to Ban Vaccine Passports,” PolitiFact, May 6, 2021.


86 “the infrastructure, globally”: Jason Horowitz, “Steve Bannon Is Done Wrecking the American Establishment. Now He Wants to Destroy Europe’s,” New York Times, March 9, 2018.


86 “good enough”: Jennifer Senior, “American Rasputin,” The Atlantic, June 6, 2022.


87 “surveillance capitalism”: Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (London: Profile Books, 2019).


87 Israeli-designed spyware: Stephanie Kirchgaessner et al., “Revealed: Leak Uncovers Global Abuse of Cyber-surveillance Weapon,” The Guardian, July 18, 2021.


87–88 “nanny cams” . . . Ring doorbell footage . . . “God View” . . . personal photos . . . period-tracking apps: Allyson Chiu, “She Installed a Ring Camera in Her Children’s Room for ‘Peace of Mind.’ A Hacker Accessed It and Harassed Her 8-Year-Old Daughter,” Washington Post, December 12, 2019; Alfred Ng, “Amazon Gave Ring Videos to Police Without Owners’ Permission,” Politico, July 13, 2022; Alex Hern, “Uber Employees ‘Spied on Ex-partners, Politicians and Beyoncé,’” The Guardian, December 13, 2016; Johana Bhuiyan and Charlie Warzel, “‘God View’: Uber Investigates Its Top New York Executive for Privacy Violations,” BuzzFeed News, November 18, 2014; Kashmir Hill, “The Secretive Company That Might End Privacy as We Know It,” New York Times, January 18, 2020; Rina Torchinsky, “How Period Tracking Apps and Data Privacy Fit into a Post-Roe v. Wade Climate,” National Public Radio, June 24, 2022.


89 “replication as travesty”: The Red Hand Files, Nick Cave, Issue #218, January 2023.


90 “CCP-style social credit score system”: Paul Vallely, host, “The Stand Up America US Show,” Don Smith Show (podcast), episode 35, May 16, 2022, at 40:01, posted on Rumble.


91 “they start purging your enemies”: Adam Creighton, “The Plague Afflicting Liberal Democracy,” The Australian, June 5, 2021.


91 “deprivatization”: Ben Tarnoff, Internet for the People: The Fight for Our Digital Future (London: Verso Books, 2022).


91 “To build a better internet” . . . “What is at stake”: Tarnoff, Internet for the People, xv, 33.


92 “the digital town square”: Jean Burgess, “The ‘Digital Town Square’? What Does It Mean When Billionaires Own the Online Spaces Where We Gather?,” The Conversation, April 27, 2022.


92 “From the edges to the core”: Tarnoff, Internet for the People, 58.


93 “stay ahead of the censors”: Steve Bannon, host, “Breaking Down the Data That the Establishment Fears,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 143, September 22, 2022, posted on Amazon Music.

6. Diagonal Lines

96 “better . . . than seven sons”: Ruth 4:15 (New International Version).


96 “uncover his feet and lie down”: Ruth 3:4 (New International Version).


98 “a horrible human being”: Adam Creighton, “The Plague Afflicting Liberal Democracy,” The Australian, June 5, 2021.


98 “Ding dong the witch is dead”: Jet @Jet0o, tweet, June 5, 2021, Twitter.


99 “the Twitter killer”: Steve Bannon @SteveBannon, Gettr post, July 4, 2021.


99 soldiers in his “cavalry”: Steve Bannon @SteveBannon, Gettr post, October 29, 2022.


99 “profoundly” disagree with Trump “ideologically”: Adam Rawnsley, “Anti Vaxxer Naomi Wolf Joins Trump’s Doomed Tech Suit,” Daily Beast, July 28, 2021 (updated July 30, 2021).


100 “going to school with Jews”: Nancy Dillon, “Anti-Semitic Trump Campaign CEO Stephen Bannon Not a Big Fan of ‘Whiny Brat’ Jews, Ex-wife Says,” New York Daily News, August 27, 2016.


101 “conspiracy singularity”: Anna Merlan, “The Conspiracy Singularity Has Arrived,” Vice News, July 17, 2020.


102 “Born in part from transformations”: William Callison and Quinn Slobodian, “Coronapolitics from the Reichstag to the Capitol,” Boston Review, January 12, 2021.


103 “media darling”: Naomi Wolf, “The Last Stage of a Tyrannical Takeover—Interview with Naomi Wolf,” interview by Joseph Mercola, June 1, 2022.


103 “I never thought I would be talking to you”: Tucker Carlson, “Naomi Wolf Sounds Alarm at Growing Power of ‘Autocratic Tyrants.’”


103 one of Britain’s most vocal climate change deniers: James Delingpole, “‘Climategate Was Fake News,’ Lies the BBC…,” Breitbart, July 11, 2019, posted on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine.


103 “This is so unlikely”: James Delingpole, “Naomi Wolf,” The James Delingpole Podcast, May 3, 2021, 0:25–1:04.


103 “I spent years thinking you were the devil”: Steve Bannon, host, “Not Science Fiction…Dr. Naomi Wolf Reveals Dangers of Vaccine Passports,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 874, April 14, 2021, at 13:43–14:03, posted on Rumble.


104 comparing Covid health measures: Joseph Mercola, host, “Best of Series—Ten

Tyrannical Steps,” Take Control of Your Health (podcast), May 4, 2022; Bannon, “Not Science Fiction…Dr. Naomi Wolf Reveals Dangers of Vaccine Passports.”


105 “a cautionary tale”: Rachel Cooke, “Naomi Wolf: ‘We’re in a Fight for Our Lives and for Democracy,’” The Guardian, May 19, 2019.


105 “Some writers take to drink”: Michiko Kakutani, “Vidal: ‘I’m at the Top of a Very Tiny Heap,’” New York Times, March 12, 1981.


106 “premium” membership: “Become a DailyClout Member,” DailyClout (website), accessed November 2, 2022.

  • As of August 2023, this has changed to $7.00 for a “premium” membership and $24.99 for a “pro” membership.


107 “the first viral pandemic”: Steven W. Thrasher, The Viral Underclass: The Human Toll When Inequality and Disease Collide (New York: Celadon Books, 2022), 4.


107 “We knew the branding was conspiratorial”: Josh Rottenberg and Stacy Perman, “Meet the Ojai Dad Who Made the Most Notorious Piece of Coronavirus Disinformation Yet,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2020.


107 “capitalizable conspiracy”: Callison and Slobodian, “Coronapolitics from the Reichstag to the Capitol.”


108 “the most comprehensive edition”: Leonard Wolf, ed., The Essential Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde: The Definitive Annotated Edition of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Classic Novel (New York: Plume, 1995), back cover.


109 “she had to find a new world”: Ian Burrell, “Naomi Wolf’s Slide from Feminist, Democratic Party Icon to the ‘Conspiracist Whirlpool,’” Business Insider, June 5, 2021.


110 “left the country”: Naomi Wolf, “A Lost Small Town,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, October 26, 2022.


110 “Unlike the Silicon Valley oligarchs”: Gettr @GETTRofficial, tweet, September 23, 2021, Twitter.


110 “Speak freely”: “Parler: About This App,” Google Play, updated August 28, 2022.


111 “crushing you every day”: Steve Bannon, host, “Independence Day!!; Naomi Wolf’s Coup,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,506, December 23, 2021, at 24:55, posted on Rumble.


111 “mass formation psychosis”: “No Evidence of Pandemic ‘Mass Formation Psychosis,’ Say Experts Speaking to Reuters,” Reuters Fact Check, January 7, 2022.


111 “My job . . . is to wake people up from the Truman Show”: James Pogue, “Inside the New Right, Where Peter Thiel Is Placing His Biggest Bets,” Vanity Fair, April 20, 2022.


111 “becalmed . . . like Stepford kids”: Naomi Wolf, @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr, April 16, 2022.


111 “latest thinking”: “Dr Naomi Wolf on Kristina Borjesson Show,” Today’s News Talk (audio), July 24, 2022, at 26:46.


112 “You can’t pick up human energy”: “Dr Naomi Wolf on Kristina Borjesson Show,” at 26:58–28:26.


112 “lipid nanoparticles”: “Dr Naomi Wolf on Kristina Borjesson Show,” at 30:23, 29:30.


112 “That’s how these lipid nanoparticles work”: “Dr Naomi Wolf on Kristina Borjesson Show,” at 30:21.


113 the discovery of the syndrome: Paul Meehan, The Ghost of One’s Self: Doppelgangers in Mystery, Horror and Science Fiction Films (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2017), 28.


113 “better to reign in Hell”: John Milton, Paradise Lost (London: 1677), line 263.

7. MAGA’s Plus-One

116 Trump fomentedDemocrats enabled: Patricia Zengerle, Richard Cowan, and Doina Chiacu, “Trump Incited Jan. 6 Attack After ‘Unhinged’ White House Meeting, Panel Told,” Reuters, July 12, 2022; Dan Friedman and Abigail Weinberg, “Here’s the Whole Transcript of That Leaked Steve Bannon Tape, Annotated,” Mother Jones, August 17, 2022.


117 Russia accused Ukraine…“mirror imaging”: “Putin Accuses Ukraine of ‘Dirty Bomb’ Plans, Says Risks of World Conflict High,” Reuters, October 26, 2022; “Ukraine Says Russian Troops Will Fight for Key City as Proxy Government Flees,” New York Times, October 24, 2022.


117 feigning outrage…gloves-off U.S. interference: Julian Barnes, “Russian Interference in 2020 Included Influencing Trump Associates, Report Says,” New York Times, March 16, 2021; Elaine Sciolino, “U.S. to Back Yeltsin If He Suspends Congress,” New York Times, March 13, 1993.


118 “lab leak theory”: Rob Kuznia et al., “Weird Science: How a ‘Shoddy’ Bannon-Backed

Paper on Coronavirus Origins Made Its Way to an Audience of Millions,” CNN Politics, October 21, 2020; “His Glory Presents: Take FiVe w/ Dr. Naomi Wolf,” His Glory, July 28, 2022, at 28:54.


118 Monsanto lobbies ceaselessly…linked with cancer: Zach Boren and Arthur Neslen, “How Lobbyists for Monsanto Led a ‘Grassroots Farmers’ Movement Against an EU Glyphosate Ban,” Unearthed, October 17, 2018; “IARC Monograph on Glyphosate,” WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer; “Roundup Weedkiller ‘Probably’ Causes Cancer, Says WHO Study,” The Guardian, March 21, 2015.


118 Johnson & Johnson: Edward Helmore, “Lawsuits, Payouts, Opioids Crisis: What Happened to Johnson & Johnson?,” The Guardian, October 18, 2019.


119 rare cases of heart inflammation: “Myocarditis and Pericarditis After mRNA COVID-19

Vaccination,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 27, 2022


119 possible small uptick in strokes: “CDC & FDA Identify Preliminary COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Signal for Persons Aged 65 Years and Older,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 13, 2023,


120 “genocide”: Naomi Wolf, “Dear Friends, Sorry to Announce a Genocide,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, May 29, 2022.


120 “could have been prevented with primary series vaccination”: Krutika Amin et al., “COVID-19 Mortality Preventable by Vaccines,” Health System Tracker, April 21, 2022.


121 unvaccinated people were not full citizens: Jon Henley, “Macron Declares His Covid Strategy Is to ‘Piss Off’ the Unvaccinated,” The Guardian, January 4, 2022.


123 “transhumanism” correspondent: Steve Bannon, host, “The Transhumanist Revolution,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,394, November 6, 2021; Charlie Kirk, host, “Transgenderism to Transhumanism with ‘Detransitioner’ Ritchie Herron and Tech Writer Joe Allen,” Charlie Kirk Show (podcast), September 15, 2022.


125 “I am a woman, I am a mother”: Benjamin Dodman, “‘Mother, Italian, Christian’: Giorgia Meloni, Italy’s Far-Right Leader on the Cusp of Power,” France24, September 24, 2022.


125 “perfect consumer slaves”: Ian Schwartz, “Italy’s Giorgia Meloni: We Are the Enemy to Those Who Would Like Us to Have No Identity, Be the Perfect Consumer Slaves,” RealClearPolitics, September 26, 2022.


125 “big financial speculators”: Amy Kazmin, “Giorgia Meloni Faces Economic Storm as She Prepares to Take Helm in Italy,” Financial Times, October 18, 2022.


125 “The War Room is a cash machine”: Jennifer Senior, “American Rasputin,” The Atlantic, June 6, 2022.


127 “Speak in the vernacular”: Mike Davis, “Ten Immodest Commandments: Lessons from a Fumbling-and-Bungling Lifetime of Activism,” Truthout, November 20, 2011.


128 “deplorables”: Steve Bannon, host, “Biden Chaos; Easy Money Destroys the Deplorable’s,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,517, December 28, 2021, posted on Rumble.


128 “Never again will they be able to other you”: Steve Bannon, host, “Independence Day!!; Naomi Wolf’s Coup,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,506, December 23, 2021, at 17:30 and 25:43, posted on Rumble.


128 his “community”: Bannon, “Independence Day!!,” at 19:53.


128 “heads on pikes”: Dan Mangan, “Steve Bannon’s Podcast Barred from Twitter After He Made Beheading Comment About Fauci, FBI Director Wray,” CNBC, November 5, 2020.


128 “border warfare”…“inclusive nationalism”: Screen capture from War Room posted on the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, October 22, 2022; Steve Bannon @SteveBannon, post, Gettr, June 9, 2022.


128 polling supports this claim: Joshua Jamerson and Aaron Zitner, “GOP Gaining Support Among Black and Latino Voters, WSJ Poll Finds,” Wall Street Journal, November 7, 2022.


129 “run this country for one hundred years”: Steve Bannon, host, deleted episode, War Room: Pandemic (podcast); Bannon, “Biden Chaos,” at 13:56.


129 “true American patriots”: “Competing Visions of America: An Evolving Identity or a Culture Under Attack? Findings from the 2021 American Values Survey,” Public Religion Research Institute, November 1, 2021.


129 “muscle memory”: Steve Bannon, host, deleted episode, War Room: Pandemic (podcast).


129 “Step 3. Develop a thug caste”: Naomi Wolf, “Fascist America, in 10 Easy Steps,” The Guardian, April 24, 2007.


130 “Warrior Moms”…“Army of Moms”: Steve Bannon, host, “Parents Are Still Taki ng to the Streets,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,387, November 3, 2021, posted on Rumble; Steve Bannon, host, “Army of Moms Have Been Mobilized,” War Room: Pandemic (video), October 29, 2021, at 0:45.


131 She warns him gravely…a president who forcibly separated: Bannon, “Independence Day!!,” at 43:50; Myah Ward, “At Least 3,900 Children Separated from Families Under Trump ‘Zero Tolerance’ Policy, Task Force Finds,” Politico, August 6, 2021.


131 “shortlist for woman of the year”: Steve Bannon, host, War Room: Pandemic (podcast), May 21, 2021, clip posted on Media Matters for America.


131 does not seem to like being referred to as a “mercenary”: Brian W. O’Shea, comments, Dr Naomi Wolf, Facebook post, November 22, 2014.


131 “Greetings”: Naomi Wolf @naomirwolf, tweet, December 20, 2022, Twitter.


132 “does something that’s needed”: “US Abortion: Best Selling Author Dr Naomi Wolf Discusses Leaked US Supreme Court Documents,” GB News channel on YouTube, May 3, 2022, at 4:14–4:27.


132 “Gosh darn I am TIRED”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, May 13, 2022.


132 “an historic day”: Bannon, “Parents Are Still Taking to the Streets,” at 20:25.


132 Wolf had strongly pushed back: Rachel Savage, “INTERVIEW—U.S. Author Naomi Wolf Condemns UK’s ‘Moral Panic’ on Trans Issues,” Reuters, November 27, 2020.


132 “huge victory”: Bannon, “Parents Are Still Taking to the Streets,” at 20:50–24:58.


133 “You did so much”: Bannon, “Parents Are Still Taking to the Streets,” at 20:50.


133 “a full-throated apology”: Naomi Wolf, “Dear Conservatives, I Apologize,” Outspoken

with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, March 9, 2023.


133 “that species of the frightening”: Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny,” in The Uncanny, trans. David McLintock (London: Penguin, 2003), 124. Freud’s essay was originally published in 1919.


134 “Each is a distorting mirror”: “Two Birthdays,” The Spectator, April 12, 1939, 5.


135 “Soldiers! Don’t give yourselves to brutes”: The Great Dictator, directed by Charles Chaplin (United Artists, 1940), at 2:00:00–2:01:30.


135 resist the “slavery”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” DailyClout channel on YouTube, March 30, 2021.


135 “reason” and “democracy”: The Great Dictator, at 2:02:40.

8. Ridiculously Serious, Seriously Speechless

136 cache of leaked Carlyle Group documents: Naomi Klein, “James Baker’s Double Life,” The Nation, October 12, 2004.


137 “They tried to implement this doctrine of shock”: Alexis Tsipras and Slavoj Žižek, “The Role of the European Left,” Subversive Festival, Zagreb, Croatia, SkriptaTV channel on YouTube, May 15, 2013, at 9:16.


140 “In Bailey, Roth found”: Laura Marsh, “Philip Roth’s Revenge Fantasy,” New Republic, March 22, 2021.


141 “Where’s Philip?”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock: A Confession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 22.


142 “‘I’m looking at myself’”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 71.


142 “Your name! Your name!”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 99.


143 “Philip, I feel that I’m reading”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 31.


144 “all of them in one”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 34.


144 “It’s too ridiculous to take seriously”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 55.


144 “preposterous proxy”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 115.


145 “the antitragic force”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 389.


146 “open race hate” . . . “genocidal talk”: Tucker Carlson, “Open Race Hate Forms Much of MSNBC’s Substance,” October 20, 2022.


146 “Some time in the last five years”: Sarah Ditum, “Naomi Wolf Is Not a Feminist Who Became a Conspiracy Theorist—She’s a Conspiracist Who Was Once Right,” New Statesman, October 7, 2014.


148 “There has been a distinct warming up”: Naomi Klein, “Screen New Deal,” The Intercept, May 8, 2020.


149 “CEO of a tech company”: “Watch Dr Naomi Wolf Discuss ‘Why Vaccine Passports Equal Slavery Forever,’” DailyClout channel on YouTube, March 30, 2021.

  • See also an interview with Tucker Carlson on Tucker Carlson Tonight from March 2021 (at 1:50), and Wolf’s book, The Bodies of Others (Fort Lauderdale: All Seasons Press) 2022, p. 196


149 imagining that a global calamity: Arundhati Roy, “The Pandemic Is a Portal,” Financial Times, April 3, 2020.


150 “the ones who want us eating insects”: Ben Blanchet, “Newsmax TV Bans

Reporter over Wacky Rant About Satan, Insects and Drinking Blood,” HuffPost, October 20, 2022.


152 “I AM THE YOU THAT IS NOT WORDS”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 87.


153 world’s ten richest men: Nabil Ahmed et al., “Inequality Kills: The Unparalleled Action Needed to Combat Unprecedented Inequality in the Wake of COVID-19,” Oxfam International, January 2022.


153 almost certainly fired by an Israeli soldier: Agence France-Presse, “Shireen Abu Aqleh Killed by ‘Seemingly Well-Aimed’ Israeli Bullet, UN Says,” The Guardian, June 24, 2022.


153 “In many ways, nothing has really changed”: Angela Davis, interview by Alonzo King (audio recording), City Arts & Lectures, May 24, 2022.


154 “Build back better. Blah, blah, blah”: “Greta Thunberg Mocks World Leaders in ‘Blah, Blah, Blah’ Speech,” BBC News channel on YouTube, September 28, 2021, at 0:06–0:52.


154 “They even succeeded in watering down”: “Greta Thunberg: ‘COP26 Even Watered Down the Blah, Blah, Blah,’” BBC News, November 15, 2021.


155 “At some point you’d have to live”: Tamara Lindeman, “Loss,” on the album Ignorance (Fat Possum Records, 2021).

9. The Far Right Meets the Far-Out

163 “World Wide Walkout”: Naomi Wolf, @DrNaomiRWolf, “#walkoutwednesday,” Gettr post, November 3, 2021.


165 “I feel like a vaccination”: “Newsmax Host Suggests Vaccines Are ‘Against Nature,’ and Some Diseases Are ‘Supposed to Wipe Out a Certain Amount of People,’” Media Matters for America, July 12, 2021 (video and transcript of Rob Schmitt Tonight, Newsmax, July 9, 2021).


166 “A wonderful plague”: “The Charter of New England: 1620,” The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy, Yale Law School. .

  • I have modernized the language for clarity of reading. The original, in context, is: “And also for that We have been further given certainly to knowe, that within these late Yeares there hath by God’s Visitation reigned a wonderfull Plague, together with many horrible Slaugthers, and Murthers, committed amoungst the Sauages and brutish People there, heertofore inhabiting, in a Manner to the utter Destruction, Deuastacion, and Depopulacion of that whole Territorye, so that there is not left for many Leagues together in a Manner, any that doe claime or challenge any Kind of Interests therein, nor any other Superiour Lord or Souveraigne to make Claime hereunto, whereby We in our Judgment are persuaded and satisfied that the appointed Time is come in which Almighty God in his great Goodness and Bountie towards Us and our People, hath thought fitt and determined, that those large and goodly Territoryes, deserted as it were by their naturall Inhabitants, should be possessed and enjoyed by such of our Subjects and People as heertofore have and hereafter shall by his Mercie and Favour, and by his Powerfull Arme, be directed and conducted thither.”


166 “But for the natives in these parts”: Howard Simpson, Invisible Armies: The Impact of Disease on American History (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1980), 7.

  • I have modernized the language for clarity of reading. The original is cited in Simpson (1980), p. 7: “But for the natives in these pts, God hath so pursued them, as for 300 miles space the greatest pte of them are swept awaye by the small poxe wch still con- tinues among them: So as God hathe thereby cleered or title to this place, & those who remaine in these pts, being in all not 50, have putt themselves under or protection & freely confined themselves & their interest within certaine limitts.”


166 writing of “the Indians”: “A New Description of That Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina, by John Archdale, 1707,” in Original Narratives of Early American History: Narratives of Early Carolina 1650–1708, ed. Alexander Salley Jr. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911), 282–311.


169 “conspirituality”: Charlotte Ward and David Voas, “The Emergence of Conspirituality,” Journal of Contemporary Religion 26, no. 1 (2011): 103–121.


169 “the Disinformation Dozen”: “The Disinformation Dozen: Why Platforms Must Act on Twelve Leading Online Anti-Vaxxers,” Center for Countering Digital Hate, March 24, 2021.


170 Christiane Northrup: Sam Kestenbaum, “Christiane Northrup, Once a New Age Health Guru, Now Spreads Covid Disinformation,” Washington Post, May 3, 2022 (updated May 9, 2022).


171 “You can go eat deep-fried pickles”: Jessica Wallace, “Kamloops Gym Owners Explain Why They Remain Open Despite Public Health Order Mandating They Close,” Kamloops This Week, December 23, 2021.


172 “Third Shift [added] to their leisure time”: Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women (1990; repr. New York: Perennial, 2002), 26–27.


172 “part of a larger withdrawal”: Barbara Ehrenreich, Natural Causes: An Epidemic of Wellness, the Certainty of Dying, and Killing Ourselves to Live Longer (New York: Hachette Book Group, 2018), 54–56.


172 “I may not be able to do much”: Ehrenreich, Natural Causes, 56–57.


173 “I was tired of flat, unforgiving dressing room lights”: Carmen Maria Machado, Her Body and Other Parties (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2017), 153.


173 “I kneel down next to it”: Machado, Her Body and Other Parties, 165.


174 “Old age isn’t a battle”: Philip Roth, Everyman (London: Vintage, 2007), 156.


175 “Black women are three times more likely” . . . infant mortality rates: “Working Together to Reduce Black Maternal Mortality,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 3, 2023; Danielle M. Ely and Anne K. Driscoll, “Infant Mortality in the United States, 2019: Data from the Period Linked Birth/Infant Death File,” National Vital Statistics Reports 70, no. 14 (December 8, 2021): 1–17.


175 “Let me show you how simple”: “About: A Note from Steph,” Glowing Mama (website), accessed October 13, 2022.


176 “medicine’s sexism”: Michelle Cohen, “Goop Has Exploited the Medical Establishment’s Failures on Women’s Health,” CBC News, August 27, 2018.


177 “a leading cause of death”: Rupa Marya @DrRupaMarya, tweet, May 15, 2022, Twitter.


179 an estimated $155 billion: “Dietary Supplements Market Report till 2027,” MarketsandMarkets, April 2022.


180 “If you don’t support us”: Alex Jones, “The Alex Jones Show,” Infowars, May 11, 2022.

  • As of August 2023, a video of this episode was hosted on Prison Planet TV. See 2:22:39 to 2:23:28


180 states like Wyoming and Mississippi: John Elflein, “Percentage of U.S. Population Who Had Been Given a COVID-19 Vaccination as of October 5, 2022, by State or Territory,” Statista, October 2022.


181 “Health is NOT THE GOAL of the medical establishment”: “Homepage,” Christiane Northrup M.D. (website), accessed January 3, 2023.


183 “Do you hate my body, Mom?”: Machado, Her Body and Other Parties, 164.


183 obesity, diabetes, and some forms of addiction: “People with Certain Medical Conditions,” Covid-19, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, updated February 10, 2023.


184 “Go fucking eat a carrot and jump on a treadmill”: @glowingmamafit, Instagram Reel, September 13, 2021.


184 “Thousands of white Americans”: Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “The Black Plague,” New Yorker, April 16, 2020.


184 changed as the pandemic wore on: Akilah Johnson and Dan Keating, “Whites Now More Likely to Die from Covid Than Blacks,” Washington Post, October 19, 2022.


186 “they turned out great!”: “Nashville Hat Shop Faces Backlash for Selling Anti-vaccine Nazi Jewish Star,” BBC News, May 30, 2021.


186 “The Slavs are to work for us”: Branko Marcetic, “You Know Who Else Opposed Vaccine Mandates? Hitler,” Jacobin, September 18, 2021.


187 “deaths pulled from the future”: Beatrice Adler-Bolton, “Deaths Pulled from the Future,” Blind Archive, Substack, January 3, 2022.


187 “you may roughly divide the nations”: “Living and Dying Nations: From Lord Salisbury’s Speech to the Primrose League, May 4,” New York Times, May 18, 1898.


188 Of the first 800,000 people . . . people living in poor U.S. counties: Julie Bosman, Amy Harmon, and Albert Sun, “As U.S. Nears 800,000 Virus Deaths, 1 of Every 100 Older Americans Has Perished,” New York Times, December 13, 2021; “A Poor People’s Pandemic Report: Mapping the Intersections of Poverty, Race and COVID-19,” Executive Summary, Poor People’s Campaign, April 2022.


189 “Leute, die sich selber sehen”: Andrew J. Webber, The Doppelgänger: Double Visions in German Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 3.


190 Vancouver is the third most expensive: Tom Huddleston Jr., “These Are the 5 Most Expensive Cities in the U.S. and Canada—and Los Angeles Isn’t One of Them,” CNBC News, July 6, 2022.


190 Many commentators speculated: Jen St. Denis, “The Billionaire and the Mayor,” The Tyee, October 24, 2022.


190 “They don’t work for some women’s bodies”: Harry Bradford, “Lululemon’s Founder Blames Yoga Pants Problem on Women’s Bodies,” HuffPost, November 6, 2013.


191 “Are Erections Important?”: Bob Kronbauer, “Here’s the Weird Essay Chip Wilson Just Wrote About Erections,” Vancouver Is Awesome, May 29, 2019.


191 fund right-wing politicians: Marc Fawcett-Atkinson, “Right-Wing Populist Group Fined for Ads Targeting Left-Leaning Politicians,” National Observer, October 7, 2022; Dan Fumano, “Lululemon Founder Gives $380,000 to Boost B.C.’s Right-Leaning Candidates, Asks Others to Donate,” Vancouver Sun, August 3, 2022.


191 “The election was about fear of crime”: Garth Mullins @garthmullins, tweet, October 16, 2022, Twitter.

10. Autism and the Anti-Vax Prequel

193 chlorine dioxide: See, for example, Kerri Rivera with Kimberly McDaniel and Daniel Bender, Healing the Symptoms Known as Autism, 2nd ed., e-book (Kerri Rivera, self-published,

2014), 81.


195 “proven to be false”: “Retraction—Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,” The Lancet 375, no. 9713 (February 6, 2010): 455.


195 faulty “interpretation”: Simon H. Murch et al., “Retraction of an Interpretation,” The Lancet 363, no. 9411 (March 6, 2004): 750.

  • Of the twelve original coauthors who could be contacted, ten retracted the paper. The journal was unable to contact the thirteenth coauthor, John Linnell. The two who did not sign off on the retraction were Andrew Wakefield and Peter Harvey.


195 “callous disregard”: “Fitness to Practise Panel Hearing,” General Medical Council (UK), January 28, 2010.


195 a resurgence of diseases including measles: Manisha Patel et al., “Increase in Measles Cases: United States, January 1–April 26, 2019,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 3, 2019.

  • “Elimination” defined as the “absence of sustained measles transmission that is continuous for ≥12 months in a defined geographic area.”


196 “reaching [the] highest number of reported cases in 23 years”: “Worldwide Measles Deaths Climb 50% from 2016 to 2019 Claiming over 207,500 Lives in 2019,” news release, World Health Organization, November 12, 2020.


196 “I respect all the research”: Naomi Wolf, “‘TRUTH’ with Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. Featuring Naomi Wolf—Season 2 Episode 21,” Children’s Health Defense (video), March 8, 2021, at 06:20.


196 “This Christmas, give”: “The Real Anthony Fauci and The Bodies of Others Boxed Set,” All Seasons Press, https: //, accessed January 12, 2023.


196 “Asperger’s-like”…“a kind of Asperger’s quality”: Naomi Wolf, The Bodies of Others: The New Authoritarians, COVID-19 and the War Against the Human (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.: All Seasons Press, 2022), 97; Naomi Wolf, “Global Predators and the Assault on Human Freedom: The Naomi Wolf Interview,” The Monica Crowley Podcast, May 25, 2022, at 27:42–29:12,  posted on Apple Podcasts.

  • See 23:59-24:34. Timestamp 27:42-29:12 aligns with the episode as edited and posted to a different platform which is no longer available.
  • As of August 2023, this podcast episode is also available on Scribd. See 23:04-23:46.


197 “Don’t you tell me”: @glowingmamafit, Instagram reel, September 13, 2021.


197 masks and vaccines . . . anti-racist education . . . gender expressions: “‘This Is Rape’: Protesters Yell at Parents Walking with Masked Kids at School Event,” CNN News (video), October 8, 2021; Andrew Guttman, “Dad Who Decried Antiracism Initiatives at Brearley Urges Parents to Join Fight,” New York Post, May 8, 2021; “Digital Hate: Social Media’s Role in Amplifying Dangerous Lies About LGBTQ+ People,” Center for Countering Digital Hate and Human Rights Campaign, August 10, 2022.


198 “extinguish” behaviors: Lizzy Engelman, “A Crash Course on Extinction,” ABA Solutions (blog), July 15, 2019.

  • “Extinction in a basic principle of behavior, and its purpose is to extinguish or put an end to unwanted behaviors. Simply put, when a behavior is reinforced, it continues, so extinction removes the reinforcer and the behavior stops.”


199 “his intense fear of indoor spaces”: Whitney Ellenby, “Bystanders Were Horrified. But My Son Has Autism, and I Was Desperate,” Washington Post, February 27, 2018.


199 “Many, many autistic children”: Aaden Friday, “When You’re Autistic, Abuse Is Considered Love,” The Establishment, March 21, 2018.


199 “precious moments”: Ellenby, “Bystanders Were Horrified.”


199 “indistinguishable from their normal friends”: Ole Ivar Lovaas, “Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55, no. 1 (1987): 8.


200 billions spent on autism research: “Research Funding for Autism in the United States from 2008 to 2023,” Statista, September 8, 2022.


200 1 in every 44 . . . 1 in 150: “Community Report on Autism 2021,” Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; “Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, March 30, 2012.


200 the clinical definition of autism expanded: Lorna Wing, The Autistic Spectrum, new updated ed. (London: Constable & Robinson, 2002), 23.


200 many more people deciding to get tested: Steve Silberman, Neurotribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity (New York: Penguin Random House, 2015), 41–43,



200 better at recognizing autism in girls . . . Black, Indigenous, and Latino boys: Laura Hull, K.V. Petrides, and William Mandy, “The Female Autism Phenotype and Camouflaging: A Narrative Review,” Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7, no. 4 (2020): 306–317; Terra Vance, “What’s in a Word: Autism and White Privilege,” Neuroclastic: The Autism Spectrum According to Autistic People, June 2, 2019; David S. Mandell et al., “Race Differences in the Age at Diagnosis Among Medicaid-Eligible Children with Autism,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41, no. 12 (2002): 1447–1453.


200 children born to older parents: Kristen Lyall et al., “The Changing Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Annual Review of Public Health 38, no. 1 (2017): 81–102.


201 “anti-vax capital” . . . 66.8 percent of one-year-olds. . . diphtheria: Ben Smee, “When Covid Came to the Anti-Vax Capital of Australia,” The Guardian, August 13, 2021; “Children Fully Immunised in NSW by Local Government Area 2020–21,” NSW Government Health, updated September 3, 2021; Jennifer King, “Now Diphtheria: Is Northern NSW Incubating Another Australian Health Crisis?,” The Guardian, July 8, 2022.


201 “I died in that moment”: Jenny McCarthy, Mother Warriors: A Nation of Parents Healing Autism Against All Odds (New York: Penguin, 2009), 7.


201 “If you ask 99.9 percent of parents”: Jenny McCarthy, “We’re Not an Anti-Vaccine Movement . . . We’re Pro-Safe Vaccine,” Frontline, PBS, March 23, 2015.


201 hawking her book: McCarthy, Mother Warriors.


202 “the world we live in”: Eric Garcia, “Tracing America’s Covid Vaccine Conspiracies to Autism Fearmongering,” MSNBC Opinion, December 8, 2021.


202 “the ideas” were “lying around”: Milton Friedman with Rose D. Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, 40th anniversary ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), xiv.


202 The grift goes back: “Fitness to Practise Panel Hearing,” General Medical Council.


203 “Boom—the soul’s gone from his eyes”: “Jenny McCarthy and Holly Robinson Peete Discuss Their Battles with Autism on Oprah,” People, September 18, 2007.


203 two to four in ten thousand: Lorna Wing and David Potter, “The Epidemiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Is the Prevalence Rising?,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 8, no. 3 (2002): 151–161.


203 “unquestionably endowed”: Leo Kanner, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,” Nervous Child 2 (1943): 247.


203 “spectrum disorder”: Wing, The Autistic Spectrum.


203 “high-functioning” autism: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994), 954–955.


204 “the myth of changeling children”: Lorna Wing, “The History of Ideas on Autism: Legends, Myths and Reality,” Autism 1, no. 1 (1997): 13–14.


204 “In some versions”: Wing and Potter, “The Epidemiology of Autistic Spectrum Disorders,” 151.


204 entice the fairy parents: Kristen L. Bone, “Murders Most Foul: Changeling Myths,” in Women and the Abuse of Power: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ed. Helen Gavin (Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2022), 31–42.


204 “[The changeling] must be beaten”: Carl Haffter, “The Changeling: History and Psychodynamics of Attitudes to Handicapped Children in European Folklore,” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 4, no. 1 (1968): 57.


205 “There is ample evidence”: D. L. Ashliman, “Changelings: An Essay,” section 6, 1997.


205 “Stories with these fantasy endings”: Ashliman, “Changelings,” section 6.


205 “stories began to circulate”: Silberman, Neurotribes, 42.


207 11 percent of Vienna’s population at the time: Mario Holzner and Michael Huberman, “Red Vienna: A Social Housing Experiment, 1923–1933,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 53, no. 1 (2022): 49–88.


207 “The Viennese socialists”: Tamara Kamatovic, “How Vienna’s Socialist City Hall Put Children at the Heart of the Welfare State,” Jacobin, June 22, 2020.


207 “No longer subjugated”: Quoted in Kamatovic.


207 “No Viennese child”: Quoted in Kamatovic.


208 “He who builds children palaces”: Quoted in Kamatovic.


208 “Vienna had become a crucible of ideas”: Edith Sheffer, Asperger’s Children: The Origins of Autism in Nazi Vienna (New York: W. W. Norton, 2018), 38.


209 As Silberman documents: Silberman, Neurotribes, 87–88.


210 “ ‘ family welfare’ under the Nazis”: Kamatovic, “How Vienna’s Socialist City Hall Put Children at the Heart of the Welfare State.”


210 “unworthy of life”: This phrase is commonly attributed to the Nazi Party which probably borrowed it from the German attorney Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche. See Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche, Permitting the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life: Its Measure and Form, trans. Cristina Modak (Greenwood, Wis.: Suzeteo Enterprises, 2012), originally published in German in 1920. See also Howard Brody and M. Wayne Cooper, “Binding and Hoche’s ‘Life Unworthy of Life’: A Historical and Ethical Analysis,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57, no. 4 (2014): 500–511.


211 “There are as many approaches”: Quoted in Sheffer, Asperger’s Children, 214.


211 “transmission of diseased hereditary material”: Quoted in Herwig Czech, “Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and ‘Race Hygiene’ in Nazi-Era Vienna,” Molecular Autism 9, no. 1 (2018): 13.


211 “autistic psychopaths”: Quoted in Sheffer, Asperger’s Children, 214.


211 “poverty of Gemüt”: Quoted in Sheffer, 157.


211 “roam the streets as ‘originals’”: Quoted in Sheffer, 179.


211 “little professors”: Silberman, Neurotribes, 6.


211 “We know how many of our former children”: Quoted in Czech, “Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and ‘Race Hygiene’ in Nazi-Era Vienna,” 16.


212 Recent research has shown: Czech, 20.


212 “It was up to Nazi child psychiatrists”: Sheffer, Asperger’s Children, 67.


213–214 “My heart goes out to you”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock: A Confession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 62–63.


214 “The Germans have proved”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 63.


214 “double-sided character of Asperger’s actions”: Sheffer, Asperger’s Children, 17.


214 “I am interested in the underlying ideology”: Anna N. de Hooge, “Binary Boys: Autism, Aspie Supremacy and Post/Humanist Normativity,” Disability Studies Quarterly 39, no. 1 (2019).

11. Calm, Conspiracy . . . Capitalism

225 “displaces the real threats”: Rodrigo Nunes, “Are We in Denial About Denial?,” Public Books, November 25, 2020.


226 “Hence, calm is a form of resistance”: John Berger, blurb, “Advance Praise,” The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (website), accessed November 8, 2022.


227 “shockingly shocking” . . . “petrifying”: Steve Bannon, host, “Naomi Wolf: The Lies of Pfizer,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), May 4, 2022, at 0:41, posted on Rumble; Paul Elias Alexander, “Dr. Wolf: Twitter Ban—Menstrual Dysregualtion [sic] and Serious Fertility Issues After COVID Injection,” July 30, 2022, at 11:42, posted on Rumble.


227 “I don’t want to use inflated language”: Naomi Wolf, interview by Steve Bannon, War Room: Pandemic (podcast), episode 1,076, July 6, 2021, at 27:17–27:35.


228 “the belief that certain events”: “Identifying Conspiracy Theories,” European Commission, accessed November 8, 2022.


229 “Somehow, somewhere, someone”: Naomi Wolf, The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women (1990; repr. New York: Perennial, 2002), 66.


229 she saw a plot and a “war”: Naomi Wolf, “The Shocking Truth About the Crackdown on Occupy,” The Guardian, November 25, 2011.


230 “I believe in equipping women”: Katharine Viner, “Stitched Up,” The Guardian, September 1, 2001.


230 “a child of the narrative”: Alexander, “Dr. Wolf: Twitter Ban,” at 16:29.


230 “Liberal investments in individualism”: Jack Bratich, email to author, October 26, 2022.


232 “There is no such thing as society”: Margaret Thatcher, September 23, 1987, transcript of an interview by Douglas Key for Woman’s Own, Margaret Thatcher Foundation.


234 “If Covid was really serious”: Nikou Asgari, “‘A Form of Brainwashing’: Why Trump Voters Are Refusing to Have a Vaccine,” Financial Times, July 20 2021.


234 “sovereign citizens”: “Sovereign Citizens Movement,” Southern Poverty Law Center, accessed November 8, 2022.


236 popularized by leftists in Turkey: Ryan Gingeras, “How the Deep State Came to America,” War on the Rocks, February 4, 2019.


236 “People of the same trade”: Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776; repr. London: David Campbell Publishers, 1991), 116.


236 “the ruling class showing class solidarity”: Mark Fisher, “Exiting the Vampire Castle,” Open Democracy, November 24, 2013. Republished with permission from The North Star (original publication date November 22, 2013).


239 “Abuse of power begets conspiracy”: Marcus Gilroy-Ware, After the Fact? The Truth About Fake News (London: Repeater Books, 2020), 169. Italics in the original.


239 impunity for real conspiracies: Sarah Kendzior, They Knew: How a Culture of Conspiracy Keeps America Complacent (New York: Flatiron Books, 2022).


241 “Does anyone really think”: Mark Fisher, Capitalist Realism: Is There No Alternative? (Zero Books, 2009), 68.


241 “wholly unjustified and brutal invasion”: “George W. Bush Confuses Iraq with Ukraine in Gaffe,” Associated Press channel on YouTube, May 19, 2022.


243 “Conspiracy theories are a misfiring”: Gilroy-Ware, After the Fact?, 169.


244 “You are stuck in your body”: Daisy Hildyard, “The Second Body,” The Learned Pig, November 15, 2017. Excerpt from Daisy Hildyard, The Second Body (London: Fitzcarraldo Editions, 2017).


244 “There is no document of civilization”: Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” in Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, ed. Hannah Arendt (London: Bodley Head, 2015), 248.


244 “It goes without saying”: James Baldwin, “The Creative Process,” in The Price of the Ticket: Collected Nonfiction 1948–1985 (New York: St. Martin’s/Marek, 1985), 317.


245 “When you are on a former battlefield”: Deena Metzger, La Vieja: A Journal of Fire (Topanga, Calif.: Hand to Hand, 2022), 1.

12. No Way Out but Back

246 “Someday all of our kids”: Naomi Wolf, “I’m Not ‘Brave’; You’re Just a P—y,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, March 2, 2022.


246 “atlas of human suffering”: “IPCC Adaptation Report ‘a Damning Indictment of Failed Global Leadership on Climate,’” UN News, February 28, 2022.


247 “So on Day 3”: Wolf, “I’m Not ‘Brave.’”


248 “the takeaway”: Wolf, “I’m Not ‘Brave.’”


248 had already announced: Eric Adams @NYCMayor, tweet, February 27, 2022, Twitter.


248 Just a few days later: “As COVID Cases Plummet and Vaccination Rates Reach New Heights, Mayor Adams Announces Next Phase of Pandemic Response,” NYC: Official Website of the City of New York, March 4, 2022.


249 “forced separate accommodations”: Wolf, “I’m Not ‘Brave.’”


249 enough of an admirer: Ann Gerhart, “Who’s Afraid of Naomi Wolf? The List Is Growing Fast Since the ‘Promiscuities’ Author Turned Gore Adviser,” Washington Post, November 5, 1999.


249 “as if we were all living”: Naomi Wolf, “A Lost Small Town,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, October 26, 2022.


250 a teaching assistant . . . “I am representing Rosa Parks”: Ryan Clarke, “Newberg School Staffer Shows Up in Blackface, Fired from Position,” Newberg Graphic, September 20, 2021; Lars Larson, host, “Lauren Pefferle—NW School Worker Shows Up to Protest Vaccine Mandate . . . in Blackface,” The Lars Larson Show, September 23, 2021, at 3:18, posted on SoundCloud.


250 Let Them Breathe: Tania Thorne, “The Woman Behind Let Them Breathe; the Fight Against School Mask Mandates,” KPBS, October 20, 2021.


251 “We have been enslaved by our government”: Eoin Higgins, “Fresh Off Twitter Ban, Naomi Wolf to Headline Anti-Vax ‘Juneteenth’ Event,” The Flashpoint, Substack, June 8, 2021.


252 “A lot of people in this nation’s history” . . . “absolutely discrimination”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post (video), June 30, 2022, at 2:01 and 3:58.


252 “an important moment in this nation’s history”: Wolf, Gettr post, June 30, 2022, at 3:11.


252 “We’ve had over 150 fake one-star reviews”: April Ehrlich, “Salem Restaurant Buried in Fake Reviews, Hateful Comments Following Naomi Wolf Incident,” Oregon Public Broadcasting, August 1, 2022.


253 “I’m sorry that you’re centering yourself ”: Wolf, Gettr post, June 30, 2022, at 3:32.


254 “the Dream”: Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2015).


254 “These collective efforts”: Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, “American Racism and the Buffalo Shooting,” New Yorker, May 15, 2022.


255 “shadow banned”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, April 14, 2022.


255 three years old: “Remains of Children of Kamloops Residential School Discovered,” press release, Kamloops Indian Band, May 21, 2021.


256 “cultural genocide”: Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015), 1.


256 at least 150,000: Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future, 3.


256 forced to attend: Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future, 53.


256 the names of 3,201 children . . . updated to 4,117: Canada’s Residential Schools: Missing Children and Unmarked Burials: The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, vol. 4 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2015), 15; “Concerted National Action Overdue for All the Children Who Never Came Home from Residential Schools,” joint news release, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation and Indian Residential School History and Dialogue Centre at UBC, June 2, 2021.


256 closer to 25,000: “Murray Sinclair on the Deaths of Children in Residential Schools, and What Must Be Done to Help Survivors,” The Current, CBC Radio, June 2, 2021, at 5:57–6:23.


256 over two thousand suspected unmarked graves: Carina Xue Luo, “Missing Children of Indian Residential Schools,” Academic Data Centre, Leddy Library, University of Windsor, September 6, 2022.


257 “kill the Indian in the child”: “Residential Schools in Canada: Education Guide,” Historica Canada, 9, accessed January 3, 2023.


257 “Yes, it’s a genocide”: Ka’nhehsí:io Deer, “Pope Says Genocide Took Place at Canada’s Residential Schools,” CBC News, July 30, 2022.


257 unanimously passed: Sean Kilpatrick, “Motion to Call Residential Schools Genocide Backed Unanimously,” Globe and Mail, October 28, 2022.


258 “Hunger is both the first and last thing”: George Manuel and Michael Posluns, The Fourth World: An Indian Reality (Don Mills, Ontario: Collier-Macmillan Canada, 1974), 65.


258 “They stole the children”: Naomi Klein, “Stealing Children to Steal the Land,” The Intercept, June 16, 2021.


259 “be honest with ourselves about our history”: Justin Trudeau, “Trudeau Says Canadians ‘Must Be Honest’ About Country’s History in Canada Day Message,” Global News channel on YouTube, July 1, 2021, at 1:15.


259 “Nations themselves are narrations”: Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), xiii.


259 “An invented past can never be used”: James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (New York: Franklin Watts, 1963), 95.


259 “If I told the same story”: Melissa Tait, “Healing Through Drums,” Globe and Mail, September 29, 2022.


259 “those little ones that had gone missing”: Mike Otto, “An Idea Turned into a Trucking Convoy for a Cause,” Over the Road Legend (podcast), July 14, 2021, at 7:16.


262 King is an open racist: Shannon Proudfoot, “Tamara Lich vs. Pat King: A Tale of Two Convoy Protest Leaders,” Globe and Mail, November 4, 2022.


262 “It’s called depopulation”: Pat King, “Trudeau Is Going to Catch a Bullet . . . Only Way This Ends Is with Bullets,” video posted on Streamable, at 0:56.


262 “not only infiltrate”: David Bauder, “What Is White Replacement Theory? Police Probe Conspiracy’s Role in Buffalo Shooting,” Global News, May 16, 2022.


262 reported that virtually every: “The ‘Freedom Convoy’ Is Nothing but a Vehicle for the Far Right,” Canadian Anti-Hate Network, January 27, 2022.


262–263 “Diagolon is increasingly becoming”: Peter Smith, “A Holocaust Denier Is Travelling Across Canada Building Up the Country’s Newest Far-Right Militia Movement,” Canadian Anti-Hate Network, January 11, 2022.


263 “not a coincidence”: Jesse Wente @JesseWente, tweet, February 17, 2022.

  • Account has been deleted. Quoted with permission.


263 “Canada Day times a thousand”: “Ottawa Occupation Was ‘Canada Day Times 1000’: Lianne Rood Conservative MP,” Women in Canadian Politics channel on YouTube, March 2, 2022, at 0:18.


265 orange sweatshirts: Matthew Remski, “Oppression Fantasies of White Anti-Vax Moms,” The Conspirituality Report, Medium, June 1, 2021.

13. The Nazi in the Mirror

267 “The very existence of this film”: Exterminate All the Brutes, directed by Raoul Peck (HBO Original, April 7, 2021).


267 “The foundation of it all”: Exterminate All the Brutes: Raoul Peck’s Statement of Intent,” HBO channel on YouTube, April 6, 2021.


268 “And if the inferior race must perish”: Joseph Conrad, The Rescue (New York: W. W. Norton, 1968), 148.


268 “At some future period”: Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: John Murray, 1896), 1:156.


269 “the core of European thought”: Sven Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes”: One Man’s Odyssey into the Heart of Darkness and the Origins of European Genocide (London: Granta, 1997), 3.


269 “Concentration camps were not invented in Germany”: Quoted in Nikolaus Wachsmann, KL: A History of the Nazi Concentration Camps (London: Little Brown, 2016), 6–7.


269 “mercy in a massacre”: Bedford Pim, The Negro and Jamaica (London: Trübner, 1866), 63.


269–270 world’s first eugenics-based law: Phillip Reilly, The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991).


270 “gunned down the millions”: Quoted in James Q. Whitman, Hitler’s American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2017), 9.


270 “There is only one task”: Quoted in David Blackbourn, The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape, and the Making of Modern Germany (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 303.


271 “In this business I shall go straight ahead”: Hitler’s Table Talk 1941–1944: His Private Conversations, trans. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens (New York: Enigma, 2000), 69.


271 “We’ll supply the Ukrainians with scarves”: Hitler’s Table Talk 1941–1944, 34.


271 “Auschwitz was the modern industrial application”: Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes,” 160.


271 “when what had been done in the heart of darkness”: Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes,” 172.


271 “There was no Nazi atrocity”: W. E. B. Du Bois, The World and Africa: An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History (New York: International Publishers, 1965), 23.


271 “Nazism before it was inflicted on them”: Aimé Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism, trans. Joan Pinkham (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000), 36.


272 “Yes, it would be worthwhile”: Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism, 36.


272 “The idea of extermination”: Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes,” 9.


273 “The ideas forged in the plantation economy”: Rinaldo Walcott, On Property: Policing, Prisons, and the Call for Abolition (Windsor: Biblioasis, 2021), 13.


274 “the cruel persecution”: Nomi Kaltmann, “The Courage of William Cooper,” Tablet, January 26, 2021.


274 “Two events need not be identical”: Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes,” x.


275 “Forces opposed to justice”: Olúfẹ́mi O. Táíwò, Reconsidering Reparations (New York: Oxford University Press, 2022), 199.


275 “There is a resistance to memory”: Jacqueline Rose, Proust Among the Nations: From Dreyfus to the Middle East (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 120.


275 “the biggest fake news story”: Dana Kennedy, “‘Biggest Fake News Story in Canada’: Kamloops Mass Grave Debunked by Academics,” New York Post, May 27, 2022.


276 He left a long, rambling manifesto: Maxine Joselow, “Suspect in Buffalo Rampage Cited ‘Ecofascism’ to Justify Actions,” Washington Post, May 17, 2022.


276 “I’m struck by the similarity”: Julian Brave NoiseCat @jnoisecat, tweet, May 16, 2022, Twitter.

14. The Unshakable Ethnic Double

278 “At this point”: Jeet Heer @HeerJeet, tweet, March 20, 2021, Twitter.


278 “If one is attacked as a Jew”: Hannah Arendt, Essays in Understanding, 1930–1945, ed. Jerome Kohn (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1994), 12.


279 “WHY ARE YOU SENDING”: Omar Sakr @omarsakrpoet, tweet, March 29, 2022, Twitter.


279 “Some reproach me with being a Jew”: Quoted in Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1951), 64.


280 “The Jew is one whom”: Jean-Paul Sartre, Anti-Semite and Jew, trans. George J. Becker (1948; repr. New York: Schocken Books, 1995), 49. The original, in French, was written in 1944 and published in book form in 1946.


281 “double-consciousness”: W. E. B. Du Bois, “Strivings of the Negro People,” The Atlantic, August 1897.


281 “I plan to give you reasons for your jumpy fits”: June Jordan, “I Must Become a Menace to My Enemies,” in Things That I Do in the Dark: Selected Poetry (1977; repr. Boston: Beacon Press, 1981), 144.


281 “The face is the ultimate communication tool”: Grace Ebert, “I’m Not a Look-Alike: Hundreds of Unrelated Doppelgängers Sit for François Brunelle’s Uncanny Portraits,” Colossal, February 9, 2022.


286 “the socialism of fools”: Richard Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 173.


287 bloody pogroms in 660 towns and cities: Robert Weinberg, “Workers, Pogroms, and the 1905 Revolution in Odessa,” Russian Review 46, no. 1 (January 1987): 53.


287 “They hurled Jews out of windows”: Weinberg, 63–64.


287 “Ethnic divisiveness was a centrifugal force”: Weinberg,” 75.


290 “I am a Jewess”: Henry Rosenthal, “Eleanor Marx: ‘I Am a Jewess,’” Jews, Marxism and the Workers Movement, Marxists Internet Archive.


290 “an all-out orgy of anti-Semitism”: Georg Adler, Peter Hudis, and Annelies Laschitza, eds., The Letters of Rosa Luxemburg (London: Verso, 2011), 295.


290 “drunk on vodka”: Quoted in Alan Johnson, “Leon Trotsky’s Long War Against Antisemitism,” Fathom, March 2019.


290 “in the epoch of its rise”: Quoted in Johnson.


291 “a set of problems”: Enzo Traverso, The Jewish Question: History of a Marxist Debate, trans. Bernard Gibbons (Leiden: Brill, 2019).


291 “Religion is the sigh”: Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Right,” trans. Anette Jolin and Joseph O’Malley (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), 131.


291 “Your liberation”: Antony Polonsky, “The Bund in Polish Political Life, 1935–1939,” in Essential Papers on Jews and the Left, ed. Ezra Mendelsohn (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 172.


292 “things will go very badly”: Walter Benjamin, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Rolf Tiedemann and Hermann Schweppenhäuser (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1991), 838.


292 “What do you want with this theme”: Dana Mills, “Lessons from the Life of Rosa Luxemburg,” Verso Blog, March 5, 2021.


292 “None is too many”: Irving Abella and Harold Troper, None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1939–1948 (Toronto: University of Toronto, 2017).


293 “Jewish capitalism”: Abram Leon, The Jewish Question: A Marxist Interpretation (1946; repr. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970), 239.


293 “Big business”: Leon, The Jewish Question, 234.


294 “Just as it is necessary”: Leon, The Jewish Question, 239.


295 “the war and the Holocaust”: Traverso, The Jewish Question, xv.


299 “Doppelgänger politics”: Caroline Rooney, “Prison Israel-Palestine: Literalities of Criminalization and Imaginative Resistance,” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 50, no. 2 (2014): 134.


299 “A land without a people for a people without a land”: Diana Muir, “A Land Without a People for a People Without a Land,” Middle East Quarterly 15, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 55–62.


299 “making the desert bloom”: Alan George, “‘Making the Desert Bloom’: A Myth Examined,” Journal of Palestine Studies 8, no. 2 (Winter 1979): 88.


300 “stucco-colored Haifa”: I. F. Stone, Underground to Palestine (New York: Boni & Gaer, 1946), 221.


300 “For the Zionists, the Arab was the Invisible Man”: I. F. Stone, “Holy War,” in The Best of I. F. Stone, ed. Karl Weber (New York: Public Affairs, 2006), 235.


300 “There was no such thing as Palestinians”: Quoted in Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), 147.


300 “present-absentee”: Mahmoud Darwish, In the Presence of Absence, trans. Sinan Antoon (New York: Archipelago Books, 2011).


300 “Israeli settlers continue their unbated campaign”: Yousef Al Jamal, “JNF Greenwashing as a Means to Hide Ethnic Cleansing in Palestine,” Politics Today, February 14, 2022.


301 “the victims of the victims”: Edward Said, The Pen and the Sword: Conversations with David Barsamian (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1994), 53; Bryan Cheyette, “A Glorious Achievement: Edward Said and the Last Jewish Intellectual,” in Edward Said’s Translocations, ed. Tobias Doring and Mark U. Stein (New York: Routledge, 2012), 78.


301 “the new Jews”: Joseph Massad, “Affiliating with Edward Said,” in Edward Said: A Legacy of Emancipation and Representation, ed. Adel Iskandar and Hakem Rustom (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 33.


301 “doppelgänger politics is first of all”: Rooney, “Prison Israel-Palestine,” 134.


302 “the Jewish people has an exclusive”: Natasha Roth-Rowland, “Land Grabs. Homophobia. Radicalized Police: What to Expect from Israel’s Far-Right Government,” +972 Magazine, December 29, 2022.


303 “go into the mindset of Zionism”: Jacqueline Rose, “Nation as Trauma, Zionism as Question: Jacqueline Rose Interviewed,” openDemocracy, August 17, 2005.


303 around 20 percent of the Palestinian population: “General Briefing: Palestinian Political Prisoners in Israeli Prisons,” Addameer Prisoner Support and Human Rights Association.


306 According to a United Nations report: “Key Figures on the 2014 Hostilities,” United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, June 23, 2015.


306 “526”: “50 Days: More Than 500 Children: Facts and Figures on Fatalities in Gaza, Summer 2014,” B’Tselem, July 20, 2016.


306 “citizen journalists”: L. Finch, “How a Jewish-American Author’s Facebook Page Became a Hub for Citizen Reporting on Gaza,” Global Voices, August 5, 2014.


306 “People are asking”: Naomi Wolf, Facebook post, July 21, 2014.


307 a typical headline: Shmuley Boteach, “Naomi Wolf’s Allegations of an Israeli Genocide Fuel Anti-Semitism,” Jerusalem Post, September 10, 2014.


307 “I was [teaching] at Barnard”: Rachel Cooke, “Naomi Wolf: ‘We’re in a Fight for Our Lives and for Democracy,” The Guardian, May 19, 2019.


307 a former U.S. special forces officer . . . Striker Pierce Investigations: “Security Consultant Shares Insider Tips on Self-Defense,” DailyClout channel on You-Tube, May 19, 2022, at 6:32–6:43; Vincent M. Mallozzi, “An Author and Investigator Find Comfort in Each Other,” New York Times, November 24, 2018.


308 “The Nazis are an excuse for everything”: Philip Roth, Portnoy’s Complaint (New York: Bantam Books, 1969), 86.


308 “isn’t speaking only of his family”: Corey Robin, “Arendt and Roth: An Uncanny Convergence,” New York Review, May 12, 2021.


309 “a Jewish country without a Jewish soul”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 109.


309 “in many, many terrible ways”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 81.


309 “all human, elastic, adaptable, humorous, creative”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 126.


309 “Jewish anti-Zionist elements”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 358.


309 “I am a tribesman”: Roth, Operation Shylock, 351.


309 “What will the goyim think?”: Philip Roth, “Writing About Jews,” Commentary, December 1963.


310 “It finally happened”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, May 13, 2022.


310 “Who knew that the perfect husband for a feminist”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, May 13, 2022.


310 “Maybe every writer and dissident critic should have”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post, May 14, 2022.


310 “is not entirely enslaved like Australia”: Naomi Wolf @DrNaomiRWolf, Gettr post (video), May 24, 2022.


311 “How had this issue escaped me”: Naomi Wolf, “Rethinking the Second Amendment,” Outspoken with Dr Naomi Wolf, Substack, June 4, 2022.


311 “with our neighbor in trouble”: Naomi Wolf, Facebook post, July 21, 2014.


311 “fully open borders” . . . “a tyrant’s dream” . . . “Traitors are dissolving”: Naomi Wolf, The Bodies of Others: The New Authoritarians, COVID-19 and the War Against the Human (Fort Lauderdale, Fla.: All Seasons Press, 2022), 47; Joseph Mercola, “The Last Stage of a Tyrannical Takeover—Interview with Naomi Wolf,” Bitchute (video), June 1, 2022, at 13:56.


311 “I am a peaceful person”: Steve Bannon, host, “‘We Are at War’: Naomi Wolf Breaks Down the WHO’s Plan to Seize Power,” War Room: Pandemic (podcast), May 12, 2022, at 5:13, posted on Rumble.

15. Unselfing

320 cut global pollution in half in a decade: “Special Report: Global Warming of 1.5°C,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2018; Jonathan Watts, “We Have 12 Years to Limit Climate Change Catastrophe, Warns UN,” The Guardian, October 8, 2018.


320 glitzy, Trumpy Las Vegas: “Nevada Caucuses 2020: Live Election Results,” New York Times, February 24, 2020.


321 new oil and gas drilling permits: Matthew Brown, “US Drilling Approvals Increase Despite Biden Climate Pledge,” Associated Press, July 12, 2021; “New Data: Biden’s First Year Drilling Permitting Stomps Trump’s by 34%,” press release, Center for Biological Diversity, January 21, 2022.


322 “second body”: Daisy Hildyard, “The Second Body,” The Learned Pig, November 15, 2017, excerpt from Daisy Hildyard, The Second Body (London: Fitzcarraldo Editions, 2017).


323 “It wasn’t me”: Eve Auchincloss and Nancy Lynch, “Disturber of the Peace: James Baldwin—an Interview/1969,” in Conversations with James Baldwin, ed. Fred L. Standley and Louis H. Pratt (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1989), 73.


324 “We’re not just the center”: The Magnitude of All Things, directed by Jennifer Abbott (National Film Board of Canada, 2020), at 55:11.


324 “feel like a coral or a fish”: The Magnitude of All Things, at 48:38.


324 “an occasion for ‘unselfing’”: Iris Murdoch, The Sovereignty of Good (New York: Schocken Books, 1971), 84.


324 “the people who are the exploiters”: The Magnitude of All Things, at 43:13.


325 “I’d like to think”: The Double, directed by Richard Ayoade (Magnolia Pictures, 2014), at 1:26:52.


325 “pity for those who suffer”: Helena de Bres, “It’s Not You, It’s Me,” The Point, September 23, 2019.


327 “We can be hard and critical”: john a. powell, interview by Ivan Natividad, “To End White Supremacy, Attack Racist Policy, Not People,” Berkeley News, January 25, 2021.


328 “Everything worthwhile”: Eve L. Ewing, “Mariame Kaba: Everything Worthwhile Is Done with Other People,” Adi Magazine, Fall 2019.


330 “These days, I feel the threat”: Arielle Angel, “Beyond Grievance,” Jewish Currents, Summer 2022.


331 “Struggle helps us see each other”: Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, conversation with author, October 17, 2022.


332 “they belong to a class”: John Berger, “The Nature of Mass Demonstrations,” International Socialism 1st series, no. 34 (Autumn 1968): 11–12.


333 “maybe somebody who doesn’t look kinda like you”: Bridget Read, “The Bernie Rally Felt So Much Bigger Than Bernie,” The Cut, October 21, 2019; Bernie Sanders, “Bernie’s Back Rally with AOC in New York,” Bernie Sanders channel on YouTube video, October 19, 2019, at 2:47:27.


334 “all the possibilities”: Sigmund Freud, “The Uncanny,” in The Uncanny, trans. David McLintock (London: Penguin, 2003), 143. Freud’s essay was originally published in 1919.


335 “If you have never believed”: Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, conversation with author, October 17, 2022.


336 “I believe the starting point”: Sally Weintrobe, Psychological Roots of the Climate Crisis: Neoliberal Exceptionalism and the Culture of Uncare (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021), 13.


337 the only alternative to barbarism: Rosa Luxemburg, Socialism or Barbarism: Selected Writings, ed. Paul Le Blanc and Helen C. Scott (London: Pluto, 2010).


339 “when I think of the land as my mother”: Naomi Klein, “Dancing the World into Being: A Conversation with Idle No More’s Leanne Simpson,” Yes Magazine, March 6, 2013.


340 “precarious, dependent”: Sunaura Taylor, “Age of Disability,” Orion, November 9, 2021.


340 “environmentalism of the injured”: Taylor, “Age of Disability.”

Epilogue: Who Is the Double?

344 carefully deconstructed: Killing Us Softly: Advertising’s Image of Women, featuring Jean Kilbourne (Media Education Foundation, 1979).


347 “I don’t know how to be myself”: The Double, directed by Richard Ayoade (Magnolia Pictures, 2014), at 41:23.


347 “Her intense energy”: Lisa Hix, “Did Father Know Best? In Her New Book, Third Wave Feminist Naomi Wolf Reconsiders Her Bohemian Upbringing,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 19, 2005, via SFGate.


348 “He’s the fake”: Philip Roth, Operation Shylock (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 367.